Comparison Table: Music
Comparison Table: Music Processing and Types of Music Used by the Various Auditory Intervention Programs
Berard Auditory Integration Training
The music for Berard AIT (AudioKinetron and Earducator) is processed using wide-band and narrow-band filters. Wide-band filters present either the low end of the frequency spectrum (1000 Hz and lower) or the high end of the frequency spectrum (1000 Hz and higher) at random intervals, approximately ¼ second to 2 seconds. The modulation consists of alternation from the low end of the spectrum to boosting of the high end at these random intervals. Narrow-band filters are used to attenuate the frequencies that the listener hears too well as evident in the person’s audio test (i.e., ‘auditory peaks’). It is important that the music source covers a relatively wide frequency range and that these frequencies occur in a relatively short time period. A wide variety of music styles are included in the program including reggae, pop, folk, rock, new age, and jazz. Berard recommends using dynamic music with a wide range of frequencies and a rapid beat. Bill Clark evaluated over 1,000 compact discs for these qualities, and a list of “approved” music was developed. Berard agreed with this music selection. Some Berard-derived AIT programs have been developed which process the music somewhat differently and/or depart from the approved list of music.
Dr. Berard developed the AIT method using the Audiokinetron. More recently, Berard collaborated on the development of the Earducator, which has similar modulation and filtering capability. These devices, along with the Berard procedures for application of AIT, are considered to be the original Berard method. The following four entries (ATET, DAA, EASe program, KAMS) describe the music and processing of Berard-derived AIT approaches.
The Audio Tone Enhancer/Trainer (ATET or BGC device)
This device was developed soon after AIT was introduced into the U.S. The practitioner can manipulate the low end of the audio spectrum (20 Hz to 1 KHz), the high end of the audio spectrum (20 Hz to 22 KHz) and the entire audio spectrum (20 Hz to 22 KHz). The volume level is also randomized. Narrow-band filters are applied during the listening session to filter out ‘auditory peaks.’ Source music is recommended from the “approved” list.
Digital Auditory Aerobics (DAA)
Music studio equipment is used to manipulate the music to produce output reported to be a replication of the AudioKinetron. The music used has a wide frequency spectrum and good rhythm and includes many children’s songs as well as many modern popular tunes (although these are not from the “approved” list). Twenty, 30-minute CD’s are provided. Narrow-band filters are used to filter out ‘auditory peaks.’
Electronic Auditory Stimulation effect (EASe program)
The music is modified to remove the upper frequencies for the majority of the listening time (creating a soft, somewhat muddy sound) and then randomly and transiently boosts the high frequencies to much higher than nominal levels. Discs #1 and #2 contain music processed through the AudioKinetron (although these are no t from the “approved” list), and discs #3 and #4 contain environmental sounds processed through the AudioKinetron. The EASe discs do not include narrow-band filters to filter ‘auditory peaks.’
Kirby Auditory Modulation System (KAMS)
This program uses western classical music selected for their spectral content and dynamic range and variability. The music is modulated using wide-band filters in the same way as the Berard AIT program. In addition, notch filters are used; and these filters are based on critical band theory and music perception models of temporal and amplitude masking.
SAMONAS Sound Therapy
Based on a system of optimal natural structure, referred to as the SONAS Principle, the music consists of classical music and nature sounds (e.g., birds, water). An ‘envelope shape modulator’ is used to enhance and intensify the upper frequency range of the sound structure. An emphasis is placed on the quality of the recordings to capture the spatial qualities of the room and character of the musicians. The musical instruments used in the recordings include only natural instruments that produce a rich harmonic structure. In addition, some of the music selections contain mostly the high harmonic range (i.e., overtones).
Tomatis Method: Audio-Psycho-Phonology
Music processed using the Electronic Ear. The music includes mostly symphonies and concertos for violin by Mozart and Gregorian chants. Initially, low and high frequencies sounds are presented at random to the listener. A cascade filtering system gradually reduces the sound level in the low end of the frequency spectrum. Overtones are also enriched. The sounds are presented through headphones (air conduction) and through vibration (bone conduction). The program may include having the person listen to his/her own voice. In some cases, the program involves having the listener hear his/her mother’s voice. Another phase of the program involves having the listener repeatedly hear songs, words and phrases.
The music consists of Gregorian chants and compositions by Mozart. A ‘smart gate’ processes the music in which low and high frequencies are presented randomly to the listener. In addition, overtones are enriched. The listener also hears his/her own voice for audio-vocal training. The program is not designed for children with autism or PDD.
The Listening Program
The music includes baroque and classical (e.g., Mozart) music. The Listening Program is designed to create a balance in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 20 KHz, with an emphasis on the speech range, 750 Hz to 4 KHz. Initially, the listening session contains the full spectrum of sound (i.e., the warm up phase). The sounds are then gradually filtered and gated (i.e., intensive listening phase). Finally the full spectrum sound is presented again to the listener (i.e., cool down phase).
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